king cobra venom uses


"Phylogenetic analysis of the king cobra, "Identification of Reptile Skin Products Using Scale Morphology", "Notes on the distribution and natural history of the King Cobra (, "A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India", "King cobra feeding on a monitor lizard at night", "Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in, "Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Homodimeric Three-finger Neurotoxin from the Venom of, "The lethality in mice of dangerous Australian and other snake venom", "Venom, antivenom production and the medically important snakes of India", "Cross Neutralization of Afro-Asian Cobra and Asian Krait Venoms by a Thai Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom)", "King cobra under threat, put on red list",, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 14:09. Another potential side benefit of the research, Margres said, is that snake venom is used in medicine for humans to combat stroke and high blood pressure. A genetic analysis using cytochrome b,[18] and a multigene analysis showed that the king cobra was an early offshoot of a genetic lineage giving rise to the mambas, rather than the Naja cobras. In this particular species, envenomation usually presents predominately with systemic neurologic manifestations. Other components have cardiotoxic effects. The venom from the Malayan pit viper snake has been found to be twice as effective at treating the blood clots associated with strokes as standard stroke drugs--the venom may work up to six hours after a stroke begins. Scientists have sequenced the entire genome of the world’s longest poisonous snake - king cobra - and uncovered the secrets behind its deadly venom. [52][55][56], The toxins affect the victim's central nervous system, resulting in severe pain, blurred vision, vertigo, drowsiness, and eventually paralysis. Just 20 minute later, he became nauseous and began to vomit — a symptom of the cobra’s venom. [25][26][27] In northeast India, the king cobra has been recorded in northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Saliva from the animals is used in diabetes medication, Boyer said. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , vol. The genus Ophiophagus was proposed by Günther in 1864. [2] Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m (10.4 to 13.1 ft) long on average. Effects of Cobra Venom. Like other snakes, the king cobra cannot chew its prey. The belly may be uniform in color or ornamented with bars. [47][48][49][50] Other components have cardiotoxic effects. The muzzle is rounded, and the tongue black. [9] "The King Cobra Genome Reveals Dynamic Gene Evolution and Adaptation in the Snake Venom System." Snake venom that stops blood from clotting is used in heart medications. It differs from other cobra species by size and hood. Comparative anatomical morphometric analysis has led to a discovery of tracheal diverticula that function as low-frequency resonating chambers in king cobra and its prey, the rat snake, both of which can make similar growls. When ingested in smaller amounts, the proteins emitted when the snake bites and releases its venom have been found to be effective as treatment for conditions such as arthritis. [41], Not all king cobra bites result in envenomation, but they are often considered of medical importance. For other uses, see, Venomous snake species in the family Elapidae, endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia, Captive king cobras with their hoods extended, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research, "Sketch of an undescribed hooded serpent, with fangs and maxillar teeth", "A notice of the Hamadryas, a genus of hooded serpent with poisonous fangs and maxillary teeth", "Description of a New Species of Naga, or Cobra de Capello", "Phylogenetic Relationships of Elapid Snakes Based on Cytochrome b mtDNA Sequences", "A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus". An individual kept at Bronx Zoo weighed 12.7 kg (28 lb) and was 4.4 m (14 ft) long in 1972. The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the world's longest venomous snake, with a length up to 5.6 m (18.5 ft). [5], The hiss of the king cobra is a much lower pitch than many other snakes and many people thus liken its call to a "growl" rather than a hiss. [citation needed], The king cobra has a wide distribution in South and Southeast Asia. These are behind the usual "nine-plate" arrangement typical of colubrids and elapids, and are unique to the king cobra. The king cobra is the Teams at the University of Singapore are working with venom from the King Cobra -- isolating a particular toxin that shows strong potential as a treatment for chronic pain. However, the most common and well known method of venom delivery is injection into a victim's body through their bite. Indian … Hamadryas elaps proposed by Albert Günther in 1858 were king cobra specimens from the Philippines and Borneo. [4], The head of a mature snake can be quite massive and bulky in appearance. When food is scarce, it also feeds on other small vertebrates, such as birds, and lizards. And there are other examples too. In 1838, Cantor proposed the name Hamadryas ophiophagus for the king cobra and explained that it has dental features intermediate between the genera Naja and Bungarus. [3] [59] In Thailand, a concoction of turmeric root has been clinically shown to create a strong resilience against the venom of the king cobra when ingested. The king cobra's venom consists of cytotoxins and neurotoxins, including alpha-neurotoxins and three-finger toxins. [20], The king cobra's skin is olive green with black and white bands on the trunk that converge to the head. Genetically engineered venom protein based on the southern copperhead snake was found to reduce cancer cells in mice by 90% in a University of California, Los Angeles experiment. [10] Killing a king cobra is punished with imprisonment of up to six years. The king cobra is regarded as a fierce and aggressive sna… Rather, it swallows prey whole and relies on very strong stomach acids to digest its meal. [6][7] It is the national reptile of India. A polyvalent antivenom produced by the Thai Red Cross Society can effectively neutralize venom of the king cobra. [8] It is threatened by habitat destruction and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2010. It also hunts Malabar pit viper and hump-nosed pit viper by following their odour trails. [15], Naja ingens proposed by Alexander Willem Michiel van Hasselt in 1882 was a king cobra captured near Tebing Tinggi in northern Sumatra. and 1.644 mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection. Like all snakes, it can expand its jaws to swallow large prey items. They consist of several layers and have mostly one chamber, into which the female lays eggs. Its hood is oval shaped and covered with olive green smooth scales and two black spots between the two lowest scales. Günther considered both N. bungarus and N. vittata a variety of H. Scientists have even experimented with developing venom-based medicinal treatments for a variety of conditions such as high blood pressure, dementia, and cancer. [1], In northern India, it has been recorded in Garhwal and Kumaon, and in the Shivalik and terai regions of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. The King cobra lives thoughout India and in some parts of the south and the east of Asia.It is known around the world for its dangerous venom. [5], Polyvalent antivenom of equine origin is produced by Haffkine Institute and King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research in India. However, cobra venom is actually used in modern medicine as a pain reliever. Envenomation signifies a true medical emergency. You see, spitting cobra’s venom doesn’t do anything if it just hits you on the skin or even gets in your mouth. This species, which preys chiefly on other snakes, is found predominantly in forests from India through Southeast Asia to the Philippines and Indonesia.Despite the word "cobra" in its name, this snake is not a member of Naja ("true cobras") but belongs to its own … [13] The AH-1Z, one of the latest members of the … [41] Ohanin, a protein component of the venom, causes hypolocomotion and hyperalgesia in mammals. King Cobra Is India's National Reptile And Features Prominently In Indian Culture. 51, 2013, pp. [34] Marvel Legends 2017 Serpent Society King Cobra Loose Incomplete Good For Custom. Death soon follows due to respiratory failure. The king cobra is the largest of the venomous snakes; it lives in the forests of India, Indochina, southern China, the Sunda Archipelago and the Philippines, where it is feared, also for its marked aggressiveness. [57] Large quantities of antivenom may be needed to reverse the progression of symptoms. elaps. It is the world's longest venomous snake. The monocled cobra — which is native to … King cobra venom affects the respiratory centers in the brain, causing respiratory arrest and cardiac failure. [28][31][23][32] It also occurs on Baratang Island in the Great Andaman chain. It senses earth-borne vibration and detects moving prey almost 100 m (330 ft) away. Kazandjian et al. Assessment of the 139 Indian cobra venom gland toxin genes for orthologs in the king cobra showed that, while 96 genes had a match, 43 did not (Supplementary Table 6e). The king cobra is a prominent symbol in the mythology and folk traditions of India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. [34][39] It is larger, has a narrower and longer stripe on the neck. The king cobra is the only snake that builds a nest using dry leaf litter, starting from late March to late May. Shipped with USPS Retail Ground. [1], Hamadryas hannah was the scientific name used by Danish naturalist Theodore Edward Cantor in 1836 who described four king cobra specimens, three captured in the Sundarbans and one in the vicinity of Kolkata. [67], This article is about the snake. Previous studies have shown that compounds in snake venom can cause pain by activating what’s called specific acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). [45] Most nests are located at the base of trees, are up to 55 cm (22 in) high in the center and 140 cm (55 in) wide at the base. The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is a large elapid endemic to forests from India through Southeast Asia. The juveniles are jet-black, with yellow or white crossbars on the body and tail and four similar crossbars on the head. [38] It usually avoids humans and slinks off when disturbed, but is known to aggressively defend incubating eggs and attack intruders rapidly. Dorsal scales are placed in an oblique arrangement. [37][66], Cobra stones or pearls are believed by tantrikas to develop from the cobra's hood. A tourniquet can also be used at the site of the bite to stem venom flow until the victim can reach a hospital to receive anti-venom. [64], In Southeast Asia, the king cobra is threatened foremost by habitat destruction owing to deforestation and expansion of agricultural land. When raising its body, the king cobra can still move forward to strike with a long distance, and people may misjudge the safe zone. I apologize for the background noise. Because of its flexible jaws it can swallow prey much larger than its head. The cobra is a wily snake that will hunt and spit venom until you or he is dead! [1] If the envenomation is serious, it progresses to cardiovascular collapse, and the victim falls into a coma. The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft). The charmer is a priestess who is usually tattooed with three pictograms and kisses the snake on the top of its head at the end of the ritual. [12] Clutch size ranges from 7 to 43 eggs, with 6 to 38 eggs hatching after incubation periods of 66 to 105 days. The toxic venom released by the cobra, one of the world’s biggest snakes, is enough to kill 20 humans with just one bite. Specifically, in three different lineages of “spitting” snakes, venom is used to deter predators. [1], The king cobra is listed in CITES Appendix II. It preys chiefly on other snakes and occasionally on some other vertebrates, such as lizards and rodents. [28][29] The large eyes have a golden iris and round pupils. [citation needed] 1 Description 2 Combat Analysis 3 List of levels featuring the King Cobra 4 Trivia 5 Gallery 6 See More A NEW monster. [9] This is thought to be due to venom’s ability to interact with blood flow and the nervous system. [40], The king cobra possesses a potent neurotoxic venom and death can occur in as little as 30 minutes after being bitten. The King Cobra (also known as the Mechanized Cobra), along with the Gorilla Captain is one of two new enemies in the Duke Nukem 3D, Duke Xtreme expansion. [2][37], The king cobra is not considered aggressive. In one group of snakes, however, venom has evolved and shifted from predation to protection. [19], A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that specimens from Surattani and Nakhon Si Thammarat Provinces in southern Thailand form a deeply divergent clade from those from northern Thailand, which grouped with specimens from Myanmar and Guangdong in southern China. [45], The venom of hatchlings is as potent as that of the adults. The throat is light yellow or cream-colored. To kill their prey, they need to bite and hang on. It occurs up to an elevation of 2,000 m (6,600 ft) from the Terai in India and southern Nepal to the Brahmaputra River basin in Bhutan and northeast India, Bangladesh and to Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. It has proteroglyph dentition, meaning it has two short, fixed fangs in the front of the mouth, which channel venom into the prey. Juveniles are black with chevron shaped white, yellow or buff bars that point towards the head. It is protected in China and Vietnam. While the hisses of most snakes are of a broad-frequency span ranging from roughly 3,000 to 13,000 Hz with a dominant frequency near 7,500 Hz, king cobra growls consist solely of frequencies below 2,500 Hz, with a dominant frequency near 600 Hz, a much lower-sounding frequency closer to that of a human voice. [14] The name is derived from its propensity to eat snakes. [41] Hospital records in Thailand indicate that bites from king cobras are very uncommon. The longest known individual measured 5.85 m (19.2 ft). It has a pair of large occipital scales on top of the head, 17 to 19 rows of smooth oblique scales on the neck, and 15 rows on the body. [65], A ritual in Myanmar involves a king cobra and a female snake charmer. It is the longest venomous snake in the world. The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed throughout many parts of Asia.This study aims to investigate the complexity of Malaysian Ophiophagus hannah (MOh) venom for a better understanding of king cobra venom variation and its envenoming pathophysiology. Condition is "Used". Snake venoms are toxic protein cocktails used for prey capture. This video was filmed at the Reptile Discovery Center, in DeLand, Florida. After a large meal, it lives for many months without another one because of its slow metabolic rate. [46] Its cylindrical tail is yellowish green above and marked with black. Cobras have several methods for delivering their deadly venom to their prey. [citation needed], Following envenomation, it swallows its prey whole. [17] The King Cobra is the largest venomous snake in the world, and can inject an extremely large quantity of venom in one bite. The king cobra toxin was a completely different sort of molecule — a large enzyme, rather than the smaller cytotoxic protein used by true cobras — but it was there. When alarmed, it raises the front part of its body, extends the hood, shows the fangs and hisses loudly. Males captured in Kerala measured up to 3.75 m (12.3 ft) and weighed up to 10 kg (22 lb). [citation needed], The king cobra's venom consists of cytotoxins and neurotoxins, including alpha-neurotoxins and three-finger toxins. An adult King cobra can grow up to 18 feet (5.5 m), though most are less than 12 ft (3.7 m). [11] The body has a variable color from olive brown to gray to black, with the back furrowed by thin irregular light lines. [9][28][30] In the Western Ghats, it was recorded in Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra, and also in Gujarat. The largest known king cobra was 5.59 m (18 ft 4 in) long and captured in Thailand. A full-grown king cobra is yellow, green, brown or black. The king cobra typically weighs about 6 kg (13 lb). Background. [3] It is the sole member of the genus Ophiophagus. The snake’s maximum confirmed length is 5.6 metres (18 feet), but most do not exceed 3.6 metres (12 feet). Its half-inch fangs deliver a huge dose, up to seven milliliters of venom, or … Temperature inside nests is not steady but varies depending on elevation from 13.5 to 37.4 °C (56.3 to 99.3 °F). It has two fangs and 3–5 maxillar teeth in the upper jaw, and two rows of teeth in the lower jaw. [35] In Singapore, one was observed swallowing a clouded monitor. Adult king cobras are 3.18 to 4 m (10.4 to 13.1 ft) long. The King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), or hamadryad, is in the Elapidae family of snakes. Synthetic king cobra venom, says National Geographic, is used in pain relievers and arthritis medications. [41] Most victims bitten by king cobras are snake charmers. It is a highly venomous and dangerous snake when agitated or provoked that has a fearsome reputation in its range,[4][5] although it is typically shy and avoids confrontation with humans when possible. The Bell AH-1Z Viper is an American twin-engine attack helicopter, based on the AH-1W SuperCobra, that was developed for the United States Marine Corps as part of the H-1 upgrade program.The AH-1Z features a four-blade, bearingless, composite main rotor system, uprated transmission, and a new target sighting system. Venom in snakes is largely used to subdue and/or kill prey, and most venoms have clear actions that facilitate death or paralysis. [36] Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. [62] Clinical mortality rates vary between different regions and depend on many factors, such as local medical advancement. [23] To investigate the evolution of these complex biological weapon systems, we sequenced the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra, and assessed the composition of venom gland expressed genes, small RNAs, and secreted venom proteins. Two drugs used to treat minor heart attacks, eptifibatide and tirofiban, are based off snake venom proteins and have been in use since 1998. [3] Ventral scales are uniformly oval shaped. In the Eastern Ghats, it occurs from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh to coastal Odisha, and also in Bihar and southern West Bengal, especially the Sunderbans. However, cobra venom is actually used in modern medicine as a pain reliever. [60][61] Proper and immediate treatments are critical to avoid death. Studying snake venom for medical cures.

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